Identification and description of control system scenarios
The goal of WP1 is the identification of reference Control System Scenarios from the application domain and their description in a notation suitable for modelling them in later work packages.
A control system scenario defines a reference structure for the power grid, the monitoring & control infrastructure, with information systems at different control levels, the Corporate ICT networks and their functional relationships with the process infrastructure, and also the different threats that may threaten the operation of the power system services.
In WP1, control system scenarios are derived from ongoing evolutions of existing control systems. Different evolution aspects are taken into account.
A first set of scenarios will be derived from the increasing impact of dispersed electricity generation (renewable energy sources, -e.g. photovoltaic and wind energy- that are connected on different places to the electricity distribution network). If sufficient generation (and storage) facilities are available in a part of the electrical grid, such part can become an energy island (or microgrid) which functions independently from the major grid (e.g. during blackout). The control of distributed generation systems and microgrids form a so-called Autonomous Electricity Network (AEN), i.e. a group of distributed generators, intelligent loads and storage devices, capable of cooperation and control in a distributed manner, i.e., without central controller, and this based on standard components and public communication networks. External information, such as the instantaneous electricity price from real-time market place, can be incorporated into the control strategies in order to optimise economic control objectives. Hence, this information infrastructure is used for tertiary control, based on communication among the different entities without central coordination. It comes on top of the primary control of voltage and frequency (which is local i.e. without communication) and secondary control (which is centralised and used for e.g. dispatching). As such reliability of these electricity networks is improved, also when subnetworks of the electricity network are separated from the main network. In islanding mode, several issues need to be solved regarding protection and control (e.g. the selectivity of the protection needs to react on different threshold), which requires appropriate communication and control. The ICT infrastructure and several control algorithms are also required when re-synchronising the microgrid to the main grid after islanding.
A second evolutionary aspect for control scenarios is related to new Power Control and Management Systems which integrate management information networks with process control networks. Security and dependability issues become a major concern in this situation. This also includes the consideration of the configuration capabilities required by the deregulated market to substation automation systems. These setups address information infrastructures in which involved stakeholders access to the power control system for different purposes, and some of them require to modify the power network asset through the on-line reconfiguration of the field equipment and their control apparatus.
Hence, WP1 will identify scenarios for two groups of applications (firstly existing control systems and secondly, new control applications). Orthogonal to this identification, it will describe these scenarios from both application groups in a way that is suitable for modelling them.